Word Definition


An ultrasound test that takes images of the inside of the heart, to see the heart's structures and measure blood flow. It is used to check for clots or enlarged heart chambers.

Not to be confused with electrocardiogram (ECG).


For similar information see Procedures

Echocardiogram is a type of medical test. 

Doctors can take a picture inside your heart. 

They use it to see if there is a blood clot. 

They can also see if you have other problems in your heart. 

See Procedures


Also spelt oedema. The swelling of a cell that results from the influx of large amounts of water or fluid into the cell. If a limb doesn’t move very well, fluid may build up, causing edema.

For similar information see How stroke can affect you

Edema is when a part of your body swells up. 

If you have trouble moving your leg or arm, fluid can build up.

This fluid causes swelling. 

It is also spelt oedema

See How stroke can affect you

Electrical Stimulation

A technique that uses electrical currents to activate nerves innervating extremities affected by paralysis resulting from spinal cord injury (SCI), head injury, stroke and other neurological disorders. Also known as Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES), Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS) or e-stim and is primarily used to restore function in people with disabilities.

For similar information see Procedures

Electrical stimulation is a type of medical treatment. 

It is used if you can’t move a part of your body. 

It can help you to move again. 

It uses electricity on your nerves and muscles. 

See Procedures

Electrocardiogram (ECG)

A medical test that measures the electrical activity in the heart in order to track the rhythm of the heartbeat. It is used to detect abnormal heart rhythm, such as atrial fibrillation, which increases your risk of stroke.

Not to be confused with echocardiogram.


For similar information see Procedures

Electrocardiogram is a type of medical test. 

Doctors can track your heart beat.

They can see if there is a problem with your heart beat.


See Procedures


A procedure that records the brain's continuous electrical activity by means of electrodes attached to the scalp. It can help diagnose a number of conditions, including epilepsy, sleep disorders and brain tumours.

For similar information see Procedures

Electroencephalogram is a type of medical test. 

Doctors put a device on your head. 

It measures activity in your brain.  

See Procedures

Electrofacial Stimulation

The electrical stimulation of facial muscles for the treatment of facial paralysis.

For similar information see Procedures

Electrofacial stimulation is a type of medical treatment. 

It uses electricity on the muscles and nerves in your face.

It can help you move the muscles in your face again. 

See Procedures

Embolic Stroke

A stroke caused by a blood clot (an embolus) that has come from somewhere else in the body, usually the heart.

For similar information see Types of stroke

An embolic stroke is a type of stroke caused by a blot clot in the brain. 

The blood clot comes from somewhere else in the body. 

Usually the blood clot comes from the heart. 


See Types of stroke

Embolism or Embolus

A free-roaming clot that usually forms in the heart.

For similar information see Types of stroke

An embolism is a blood clot that forms in the heart. 

It is a free-roaming clot. 

Sometimes your body can’t dissolve a blood clot. 

The blood clot can get stuck in your brain.

This can cause a stroke.

See Types of stroke

Emotional Lability

Also known as the pseudobulbar affect. Uncontrollable outbursts of emotion (such as laughing to crying) without cause. After a stroke, it may only last a few weeks or continue for a long period.


For similar information see Emotions

Emotional lability is when you suddenly laugh or cry for no reason. 

This can happen after you have a stroke. 

Emotional lability can last for a few weeks, or for a longer time. 

This is also called pseudobulbar affect


See Emotions


The surgical removal of plaque from an artery that has become narrow or blocked.

For similar information see Procedures

Endarterectomy is a type of surgery. 

It is used when you have narrow or blocked arteries. 

The doctor widens your arteries.

See Procedures

Endovascular clot retrieval

A procedure used to return blood flow to the brain. A tiny tube is inserted through an artery to the blocked blood vessel in the brain. A wire stent or suction device captures the blood clot and allows it to be pulled back out.


See Procedures

This can only be done if you have an ischaemic stroke.

It must be done in the first few hours after your stroke.

The doctors will insert a tiny tube into your body to pull the blood clot out.


See Procedures

Enduring Power Of Attorney

Legal agreement which enables someone with decision-making capacity to appoint a trusted person or people to make financial and property decisions on their behalf.

For similar information see Legal and financial support

Enduring power of attorney is a legal term. 

You can let a trusted person make decisions about your money and property. 

See Legal and financial support

Extracranial Intracranial Bypass

A type of surgery that restores blood flow to a blood-deprived area of brain tissue by rerouting a healthy artery in the scalp to the area of brain tissue affected by a blocked artery.

For similar information see Procedures

Extracranial intracranial bypass is a type of surgery. 

It is used when you have a blocked artery in your brain. 

The doctor will use an artery from your scalp. 

This lets blood back into the areas of your brain the blood can’t get to. 

See Procedures