Strokesaurus

Word Definition

CADASIL

Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Sub-cortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy is an inherited disorder caused by mutations in a gene called Notch 3. CADASIL causes thickening of blood vessel walls blocks the flow of blood to the brain.  It is the most common genetic cause of stroke and vascular dementia in adults. CADASIL is characterised by migraine headaches and multiple strokes.

CADASIL is a type of disease. 

It can cause strokes.

It runs in families. 

It happens before you are born.

It causes blood vessels to thicken. 

This blocks the flow of blood to the brain.  

CADASIL causes bad headaches and many strokes.

CADSIL stands for Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Sub-cortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy.




Capacity

Capacity refers to a level of cognitive ability required before a person can lawfully do various things. If a person has capacity, they are able to make decisions for themselves. If they do not, an alternative decision maker may be needed.


For similar information see Brain and Cognitive

Capacity is a legal term. 

It means that you can understand what is happening. 

When you have capacity, you can make decisions for yourself. 

If you don’t have capacity, someone else might have to make decisions for you. 


See Brain and Cognitive

Cardiologist

A doctor who specialises in treating disorders of the heart, including heart disease.


For similar information see Who will be involved in my care

A cardiologist is a type of doctor.

They look after your heart.


See Who will be involved in my care

Cardiovascular System

Composed of the heart and blood vessels, the cardiovascular system is responsible for circulating blood throughout the body to supply it with oxygen and nutrients.


For similar information see Types of stroke

The cardiovascular system is the heart and blood vessels. 

Your heart pumps blood through your body. 

This gives oxygen and nutrients to your body


See Types of stroke

Carotid Artery

Artery located on either side of the neck that supplies the brain with blood.


For similar information see Types of stroke

The carotid artery is on either side of your neck.

It carries blood to your brain.


See Types of stroke

Carotid Doppler

Also known as a carotid duplex. An ultrasound test that looks at the arteries in the neck that supply the brain. This is to see how well the blood flows through these arteries.


For similar information see Types of stroke

A carotid doppler is a type of medical test. 

It is also called a carotid duplex or a carotid ultrasound

Doctors use an ultrasound to look at the arteries in the neck.

They can see how well the blood flows to your brain.

 

See Types of stroke

Carotid Duplex

Also known as a carotid doppler. An ultrasound test that looks at the arteries in the neck that supply the brain. This is to see how well the blood flows through these arteries.


For similar information see Procedures

A carotid duplex is a type of medical test. 

It is also called a carotid doppler or a carotid ultrasound

Doctors use an ultrasound to look at the arteries in the neck.

They can see how well the blood flows to your brain.

 

See Procedures

Carotid endarterectomy

An operation to unblock narrowed carotid arteries in your neck.


For similar information see Procedures

A carotid endarterectomy is a type of surgery. 

It unblocks the carotid arteries in your neck.


See Procedures

Catheter

Small tube for withdrawing or introducing fluids.


For similar information see Procedures

A catheter is a small tube for taking out or putting in fluids.


See Procedures

Central nervous system

Part of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord and cranial nerves.


For similar information see Brain and Cognitive

The central nervous system includes your brain, spinal cord and the nerves in your brain.


See Brain and Cognitive

Central Pain

Pain caused by damage to an area in the thalamus. The pain is a mixture of sensations, including heat and cold, burning, tingling, numbness, and sharp stabbing and underlying aching pain.


For similar information see Pain Management

Central pain is caused by damage to an area in the brain. 

This area is called the thalamus. 

When it is damaged, it can cause pain. 

This pain is a mix of feelings. 

It can be hot and cold, burning, tingling, numb, sharp stabbing and aching pain.


See Pain Management

Cephalalgia

Headache.


For similar information see How stroke can affect you

Cephalalgia is another word for headache.


See How stroke can affect you

Cerebellum

The part of the brain that controls the complex, voluntary movement of the muscles and helps maintain posture and balance.


For similar information see Brain and Cognitive

The cerebellum is a part of your brain.

You use it to control your movement. 

It helps you stand, sit and balance.


See Brain and Cognitive

Cerebral angiogram

A contrast (dye) is injected into the blood vessels of the brain. This outlines them for the X-ray machine to take pictures.

 

For similar information see Procedures

A cerebral angiogram is a type of medical test. 

Doctors inject you with a special dye. 

Then they take an X-ray picture. 

They can see the dye on the X-ray.

This is usually done with a CT scan or an MRI scan.

 

See Procedures

Cerebral Haemorrhage

A bleed in the brain following a ruptured blood vessel.


For similar information see Types of stroke

Cerebral haemorrhage is when a blood vessel breaks in your brain. 

This causes bleeding in your brain.


See Types of stroke

Cerebral infarct

An area of brain tissue that has not received its blood supply and as a result it has been damaged. An infarct can be tiny or affect a larger part of the brain.


For similar information see Types of stroke

Cerebral infarct is when an area of your brain is damaged. 

The damage happens when a part of your brain does not get blood. 

Some cerebral infarcts are very small. 

Others affect larger parts of your brain. 

 

See Types of stroke

Cerebral or Cerebro

The brain.


For similar information see Brain and Cognitive

Cerebral or cerebro are medical words for brain.


See Brain and Cognitive

Cerebral trauma

Damage to the brain.


For similar information see Brain and Cognitive

Cerebral trauma is damage to the brain.


See Brain and Cognitive

Cerebrovascular Disease

A reduction in the supply of blood to the brain either by narrowing of the arteries through the buildup of plaque on the inside walls of the arteries  (stenosis) or through blockage of an artery due to a blood clot.


For similar information see Types of stroke

Cerebrovascular disease is when not enough blood gets to your brain. 

This can be caused by narrowing of your arteries. 

It can also be caused when a blood clot blocks an artery. 


See Types of stroke

Cholesterol

A fatty substance present in blood. If cholesterol levels become too high the fatty substance can build up along artery walls.

 

For similar information see Food and nutrition

Cholesterol is a kind of fat in your blood. 

Sometimes you have too much cholesterol. 

If this happens, the fats can stick to your artery walls. 

Your arteries can get blocked. 


See Food and nutrition

Chronic

Continuing for a long time or constantly recurring.


For similar information see How stroke can affect you

A chronic illness is one you have had for a long time. 

It also means illnesses that keep coming back.


See How stroke can affect you

Clinical trial

A research program conducted with patients to evaluate a new medical treatment, drug or device.


For similar information see research in What Helps

A clinical trial is used to test new treatments. 

Doctors can then decide if the treatment will work


See research in What Helps

Clot busting

The process of administering the drug rt-PA intravenously to break up a blood clot.


For similar information see Procedures

Clot busting means breaking up a blood clot.

This can only be done if you have an ischaemic stroke.

It must be done in the first few hours after your stroke.

This is done with a medicine called rt-PA.

The doctors will give you rt-PA through a needle.

 

See Procedures

Clot retrieval

A procedure used to return blood flow to the brain. A tiny tube is inserted through an artery to the blocked blood vessel in the brain. A wire stent or suction device captures the blood clot and allows it to be pulled back out.

 

See Procedures

This can only be done if you have an ischaemic stroke.

It must be done in the first few hours after your stroke.

The doctors will insert a tiny tube into your body to pull the blood clot out.

 

See Procedures

Coagulation

Coagulation or clotting is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel.


For similar information see Procedures

Coagulation is when the blood forms a clot. 

The blood changes to a jelly. 

This is to protect your body when you get a cut. 

The blood forms a clot to stop you bleeding. 

This is normally a healthy thing but the same process can sometimes cause a stroke. 


See Procedures

Cognition

Thinking ability, including memory, thinking, language and judgment.


For similar information see Brain and Cognitive

Cognition means how you think. 

It includes: 

  • Memory.
  • Thinking.
  • Language.
  • Judgment.

 

See Brain and Cognitive

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

Short term, solution-focused approach to counselling that helps individuals to identify unhelpful thoughts and behaviours and learn or relearn healthier skills and habits.


For similar information see Brain and Cognitive

Cognitive behavioural therapy is a type of counselling. 

It is usually done with a psychologist

The psychologist will teach you to recognise your unhelpful thoughts and behaviours. 

They will teach you how to change them. 


See Brain and Cognitive

Cognitive Impairment

Difficulty with thinking, memory, thinking, language and judgment.


For similar information see Brain and Cognitive

Cognitive impairment is when you have trouble with your thoughts. 

It includes problems with: 

  • Memory 
  • Thinking 
  • Language 
  • Judgment.


See Brain and Cognitive

Complete Blood Count

Information about the kinds and numbers of cells in the blood, especially red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.


For similar information see Types of stroke

A complete blood count is a medical test. 

It finds out the kinds and numbers of cells in your blood. 

This includes: 

  • Red blood cells that carry oxygen
  • White blood cells that fight infection
  • Platelets that form clots to stop you bleeding.


See Types of stroke

Computerised Axial Tomography

Also known as a CT scan. X-ray imaging technique that uses a computer to produce cross-sectional images. It can be used to identify the blood vessels in the brain affected by stroke.


For similar information see Procedures

Computerised axial tomography is a medical test. 

It is also call a CT scan.

Doctors can use the scan to see inside your brain. 

They can find out which parts of your brain the stroke has damaged. 

 

See Procedures

Continence

Automatic control of bladder and bowel function.


For similar information see Incontinence

Continence means being able to control when you go to the toilet. 

It is an automatic function that you don’t have to think about.


See Incontinence

Contracture

Shortening of a muscle, resulting in the joint becoming fixed in one position.


For similar information see Arm and hand function or Leg functioning

Contracture is when a muscle gets shorter.  

It can lock your joint in one position.


See Arm and hand function or Leg functioning

Contraindications

Medical reasons that prevents a person from using a certain drug or treatment.


For similar information see Procedures

A contraindication is a medical reason why you can’t take a certain medicine.


See Procedures

Controlled trial

Research that involves at least two groups: one that receives the intervention being evaluated and the other that receives either a placebo or another intervention.


For similar information see research in What Helps

A controlled trial is a type of research. 

It is a way to find out if a new medicine works.

It uses two groups of people.

One group of people is given the medicine. 

The other group is not given the medicine. 

The doctors look at both groups to see if the medicine works.  


See research in What Helps

Convulsions

Seizures, epileptic fit.


For similar information see How stroke can affect you

A convulsion is when you lose control of your muscles. 

Your body shakes. 

Other words for convulsion are seizure or epileptic fit.


See How stroke can affect you

Coumadin

See Warfarin.


For similar information see Procedures

See Warfarin.


See Procedures

CT Scan

CT stands for computerised tomography. X-ray imaging technique that uses a computer to produce cross-sectional images. It can be used to identify the blood vessels in the brain affected by stroke.

 

For similar information see Procedures

A CT scan is a medical test. CT stands for computerised tomography.

Doctors can use the scan to see inside your brain.

They can find out which parts of your brain the stroke has damaged.

 

See Procedures